Appendix


Appendix

EXCERPTS

 

from the Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Rumania

 

Art. 17. "The citizens of the Socialist Republic of Rumania, irrespective of their nationality, race, sex or religion shall have equal rights in all fields of economic, political, juridicial, social and cultural life.

 

The State shall guarantee the equal rights of the citizens. No restriction of these rights and no difference in their exercise on the grounds of nationality, race, sex or religion shall be permitted."

 

Art. 22. "ln the Socialist Republic of Rumania, the co-inhabiting nationalities shall be assured the free use of their mother tongue as well as books, newspapers, periodicals, theatres and education at all levels in their own languages.

 

In territorial-administrative units also inhabited by population of non-Rumanian nationality, all bodies and institutions shall use in speech and in writing the language of the nationality concerned and shall appoint officials from its ranks."

 

Copies from: "The Hungarian Nationality in Romania", distributed the Embassy of the Socialist Republic of Rumania, Washington, D.C. 1976.

 

 

 

TESTIMONIES

 

All testimonies listed on the following pages were given under oath, in front of proper authorities, and certified by these authorities as true and correct. The original documents are held in deposit by the Transylvanian World Federation, and can be examined there by authorized persons.

 

In some cases the names are omitted in this pub1ication in order to protect relatives still living in Rumania.

 

Testimony No. 1.

 

On March 19, 1975, Mr. Ferenc Balla gave the following testimony: "I was born and raised in the village of Feketelak, Transylvania, population about one thousand, of which three-fourth were Hungarians and one-fourth Rumanians. We had two schools in the village. One for the Rumanians, and one for us, Hungarians. From 1919 to 1944 our school was maintained by the Hungarian Reformed (Calvinist) Church, whi1e the Romanian school was maintained by the State.

 

Early on the morning of October 16, 1944, Rumanian so1diers surrounded our village. Those who tried to escape into the woods were shot. Then Rumanian soldiers went from house to house, led by the Rumanian civilians from our village. They entered on1y the houses of the Hungarians. First they beat up every male member of the family, from the age of ten to ninety. Then they raped a11 the women, from the age of ten to ninety. They herded all the men together, and kept on beating and torturing them until many of them died. They took the young girls with them. Some of these gir1s were never seen again.

 

I was fifteen, and they beat me, too, with gun-butts and leather whips. My father was killed, and so was my mother.They raped my two sisters and took them away. I was 1ocked, together with other boys and men into the church, while they feasted all night in the village. Next morning they drove us away, on foot. Some of the men were so badly beaten, that they were unable to walk. These were kicked to death or shot on the road side.

 

Near the town of Sarmas we joined a huge herd of men, driven together from all the nearby towns and villages. They were all Hungarians. There must have been thousands of us. Many barefoot. Then they drove us for six weeks, across the mountains, into old-Rumania. It was getting very cold, and we were fed only once a day some soup and dry bread. Many died along the road.

 

Then the Russians came and looked us over. They took only the young and the healthy. They took me, too. They put us on a train, and took us into Russia, where we worked building roads and bridges. I don't know what happened to the others who were left behind in the hands of the Rumanians. I have never met any one of them again.

 

When the Russians let me go in 1951, I went home, to Feketelak. The Rumanians called it Lacu. I found only one of my sisters there. From the Hungarians who lived there before only about one-third was left. Many of them died in the labor camps, I was told, and many of them stayed in old-Rumania, mostly in Bucharest, for they did not dare to return home.

 

Rumanians were ru1ing the village. They were brought mostly from Besarabia, and put into the houses of the Hungarians. They gave me a job on the state farm, but we were not allowed to speak Hungarian on the job. There was no more Hungarian school. I had an uncle who stayed in Bucharest as a carpenter, and I went to see him. Life was much better there for Hungarians, and so I decided to stay with him.

 

In October 1956 we heard the news of the uprising in Hungary. Rumors were circulating that something may happen soon in Transylvania, too. I wanted to be there, so I went back to Feketelak, on the bus. The very day I arrived to my sister's house, I was arrested, together with more than a dozen of other Hungarians. We were interrogated all night at the police station. They wanted us to confess that we were paid by the Americans to start a revolution against the Rumanian people. When they started working on our fingernails, we all confessed, and signed anything they wanted us to sign. We were taken to Kolozsvar, which is called Cluj by the Rumanians, and put into prison. In February we were sentenced by a court. I got fifteen years of hard labor, and was taken with many other Hungarians to the swamps of the Danube delta. We worked there like animals, waste-deep in the mud, digging canals. Many got sick and died.

 

In 1971 they let me go. They even gave me a job in Bucharest, collecting garbage. I was told that I could work there in peace as long as I lived, but if I dare to go back home they will put me in jail again, for they don't like Hungarians, they told me, who insist on staying in Transylvania.

 

In 1973 I was able to escape into Yugoslavia, and from there to Italy."

 

Testimony No. 2.

 

The following testimony was given by Mr. Peter Puskas, on Dec. 12, 1976:

 

"I was born in Marosvasarhely (Tirgu Mures) in 1940. My father was a locksmith, and member of the Communist Party. When in 1946 they sent me first to school, I was beaten by the teacher, named Onosifanu, for talking Hungarian with other children. There were hardly any Rumanian children in the school. The population of our city was more than 90% Hungarian. But the teacher, who was brought over from old-Rumania, did not speak our language, and we were beaten every time one of us spoke Hungarian, even during recess, on the playground. The teacher also changed my name from Puskas to Puscas, because, as he said, we were in Rumania, and that was the Rumanian way to spell my name. My father protested, and almost lost his job because of the protest. If he hadn't been in the Party, he told us at home, they would have deported him for protesting.

 

In 1955 I became the junior swimming champion of our district, and later that year I was selected member of the Rumanian Junior Swim Team. Without asking me or my parents, they changed my name on the rolls from Puscas to Puscasiu, because they did not want a Hungarian sounding name on the team. In 1957 our team took part in an interanational tournament in Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia, where I defected. Hiding on an Italian freighter I was able to reach Italy, and two years later Canada.

 

As soon as I was able to earn good wages I began to send home packages to my widowed mother. Sometimes CARE packages, sometimes IKA packages, and sometimes just used winter clothing and such. But each time a package arrived, my mother was summoned to the custom's office, and ordered to pay large sums of money which she did not have. Not being able to pay, the packages were confiscated. When CARE or IKA packages arrived, she was taken to the police station, and kept there sometimes an entire day for "questioning" concerning her connections with Capitalist and Imperialist Countries. I quit sending packages for a while. Then in 1974 I heard that packages were going through, and I started sending again. But most of those packages were confiscated, too. "

 

Testimony No. 3.

 

On March 22, 1975, Miss Sarolta ... gave the following testimony:

 

"I resided in Nagyvarad (Oradea) until 1974. I was sent by my parents into Rumanian grade school, because otherwise I would not have been able to learn any trade or enter highschool, since no entrance examinations can be taken anywhere in the Hungarian language.

 

In the Rumanian language school where I was sent we were 28 in my class. Twenty-five of us were Hungarians. It was forbidden to talk in Hungarian, even among ourselvess on the school grounds. As a first grader twice I forgot the rule and spoke in Hungarian to my cousin while playing outside during recess, and both times I was severely beaten.

 

After eight years of schooling I entered tradeschool, where again the compulsory language was Rumanian, though more than 70% of the students were Hungarians.

 

After finishing tradeschool, I was hired as a common laborer into a tactory where 85% of the laborers were Hungarians. Our wages were lower than those of the Rumanian laborers. In the offices of our factory 90% of the personnel was Rumanian, while higher positions in the management were filled exclusively with Rumanians.

 

The use of the Hungarian language was strictly forbidden in the offices.

 

I became a member of the UTC (Communist Youth Organization). The leadership of this organization was also completely in the hands of Rumanians, and again the use of the Hungarian language was forbidden.

 

Those Rumanian workers who achieved good production-records were rewarded by the Party, but us Hungarians, no matter how hard we worked, we never received an award.

 

Any Hungarian who dared to utter a word of protest, either concerning the discrimination or the use of our language, was ordered to report at the police station, and was severely reprimanded, sometimes even beaten.

 

Rumanians could move from one factory to another if they so desired, but we Hungarians were not allowed to change place of employment."

 

Testimony No. 4.

 

Given on March 7, 1975, by Mr. Mihaly ... who lived until 1974 in the city of Kolozsvar (Cluj-Napoca):

 

"ln Transylvania Hungarians have no possibilities to better paid jobs. Hungarians are excluded from government jobs, public offices or any employment with military or the police force. In order to apply for any such positions one has to produce documented proof of his ethnic origin. Those who have just one Hungarian grand-parent are not even allowed to take the qualifying examinations.

 

In the factories the common laborers are 90% Hungarians, but in spite of this the use of the Hungarian language is forbidden.

 

Though everybody can join the Communist Youth Organization, on1y those can apply later for membership in the Communist Party who are recommended by the leaders of this Youth Organization. Since these leaders are Rumanians, Hungarians are recommended only if they reject their Hungarian origin thus becoming "good Rumanians" and are willing and eager to spy on their fellow Hungarians.

 

Hungarian recruits serve their time with the army mostly in old Rumania, and they are constant1y harassed by their Rumanian superiors. No Hungarian can be an officer in the armed forces, and I have never seen a corporal with Hungarian name.

 

The new apartment buildings which are built to house the working men, are available only to Rumanians.

 

I was born and raised Greek Catholic. When our church was abolished by government order, I tried to join the Roman Catholics, but during the middle of the night I was dragged out of my bed by the police, taken to the station, beaten up, and told that if I try again to join the church they would take care of me for good."

 

Testimony No. 5.

 

Given by Mr. Ernest Hodos, on October 9, 1976 in Tel Aviv, Israel:

 

"Until 1946 my name was Hirsch.I was a Hungarian speaking Jew, born and raised in Kolozsvar (Cluj). My father and my grandfather were Hungarian Jews, too, in the same city. In 1945 the minister of the Hungarian Lutheran Church in Kolozsvar, Reverend Andor Jaros, hid me and my father from the Germans. In October of the same year, when Kolozsvar was "liberated" by the Russians and Rumanian troops, our benefactor, Reverend Jaros, was dragged out of his church by Rumanian soldiers, and beaten to death on the street. When my father and I tried to help him, we were beaten up, too. My aged father died from the beatings. Within two weeks more than two-thousand Hungarian inhabitants of our city were ki11ed in the same manner, and about 40,000 deported in terrifying circumstances.

 

This gave me the impulse to change my name from Hirsch to Hodos, in order to emphasize my strong feelings of belonging to the suffering Hungarians. In 1946 my petition was granted. As I later found out, the new judge who was a Rumanian from across the mountains believed that I was changing my Jewish name to a Rumanian name. However, when I insisted on spelling the first "o" in my new name the Hungarian way, with an accent, because I am Hungarian, I was arrested under false pretenses and given the "treatment" for two months. I had my fingers broken, several ribs, and ended up with bleeding kidneys. What I have seen and heard during those two months in the ill-famed prison of Kolozsvar, can not be put into words. Screams of tortured Hungarian women and men, that will haunt me through the rest of my life. Bloody wrecks of human being staggering along the dark hallway under the blows of gun-butts as they were led from the interrogation-rooms back to their cells by sadistic guards. Men, some of whom I knew before in person, who were judges, lawyers, city officials, bankers, teachers, clergymen or members of the high nobility.

 

That was when I decided to leave my native country for ever, that beautiful land which fell into the hands of savages ..."

 

Testimony No. 6.

 

On February 8, 1977, Mr. Jonel Margineanu gave the following testimony:

 

"During the summer months of 1966 I was assigned as supervisor to a census-unit in the Mures-district. Our written orders were as follows:

 

-1-. To register every household as Rumanian, unless otherwise demanded by the subject.

 

-2-. In case subject should desire to be listed as non-Rumanian, we were to try to convince him of the impracticality of such a desire. Should he further insist, we were to determine his true nationality by the use of scientifically approved government regulations. German-sounding names to be registered as Germans, Polish sounding names as Polish etc. Names ending in -an, -as, -u, -ea, -oa, -us, -in or -en had to be registered as Rumanian, no matter what the subject's preference or language was.

 

-3-. To contact managers and administrators of factories and other public employers ahead of our arrival into the area in order to give them time in which to prepare their employees, and explain to them the advantages of being listed as Rumanians.

 

-4-. To hand over the list of those who insisted on being registered as Hungarians to administrators and chiefs of police."

 

Testimony No. 7.

 

On May 15, 1975, Mr....gave the following testimony:

 

"In September 1974 my wife and I visited Transylvania, which is now part of the Socialist Republic of Rumania. We visited there Hungarian cities of great historical significance: Nagyvarad, Kolozsvar, Nagyenyed, Deva and Gyulafehervar. Our difficulty was, as it turned out, our lack of knowledge of the Rumanian language. It is to be noted that we both speak well four languages. Nevertheless, in hotels and in stores we had to ask for translators, because no one who worked there was willing to speak with us in Hungarian, in front of witnesses.

 

The Hungarian population of those cities is going through a process of forced and accelerated "Rumanization". The Government transfers Rumanian workers into territories with a Hungarian majority, whi1e Hungarians are being transferred into old-Rumania. In zones where the population is exclusively Hungarian, the presence of two or three Rumanian families with children is sufficient reason to change the previously Hungarian-language school into a Rumanian-language school.

 

In the book stores, all state-operated of course, only Rumanian literature can be found in these Hungarian cities. The distribution of some existing Hungarian language periodicals is made, very much on purpose, only in territories with Rumanian population. The result is that there are no sales, which is exactly what the Government wants, because this way the official sales-statistics make further publications in the Hungarian language 'unwarranted'. Therefore, no matter how high the demand might be in the Hungarian regions for these publications, their numbers are constantly decreasing.

 

As visitors, we were not allowed to stay overnight at the homes of any one of our friends or relatives. We were forced to lodge in State-owned hotels where the personnel was most unfriendly toward us, and refused to speak either Hungarian, English, Spanish or French. We were told by a whispering cleaning woman, who turned out to be a Hungarian, that most of the personnel speaks the Hungarian language but they are forbidden to use it while at work "

 

Testimony No. 8.

 

On February 11, 1977, Reverend........ gave the following testimony: "As a retired minister I have visited my native Transylvania this year. Since my passport stated that I was a clergyman, the Rumanian of ficials where extremely courteous toward me. The Rumanian government seems to be trying very hard these days to make the West, especially the United States, believe that the minority churches in Rumania enjoy complete freedom.

 

Bishops of these churches are being sent out of ficially to tour America, under guard of course, to spread this hoax . Though most of these touring clergymen speak a good English, they are accompanied by "interpreters", who are in reality agents of the Rumanian political police. Any wrong statement uttered by these visiting clergymen would bring upon the head of their families at home the most brutal wrath of the Rumanian government.

 

During my visit in Transylvania I had the opportunity to see with my own eyes that the oppression of the Hungarian churches there is still very severe, though it is somewhat more disguised than before. Church archives, libraries have been confiscated and removed to unknown locations. Church records are under strict scrutiny. Church-goers are discriminated against economically, by being transferred into lesser paying jobs or new locations where they have no possibility of attending Hungarian churches. Young people are constantly discouraged by leaders of their Youth Organizations from attending church or any church-related activities.

 

Any preacher who tries to do a good and faithful work especially with the young people is quietly told to 'slow down' or something unpleasant might happen to him or members of his family. It is indeed a miracle that in spite of all this hostility the churches I visited Sundays were still filled with people, however mostly with the old ..."

 

Testimony No. 9.

 

On December 8, 1976 Mr. Jeno Orosz gave the following testunony:

 

"In 1944 I was living in Kendilona, Transylvania, where I was born and raised as the son of a Hungarian peasant. In October of that year, I do not remember the exact date but it was in the second part of October, Rumanian soldiers came into our village, led by some Rumanian civilians. First they herded us Hungarians together in front of our church (Calvinist, called by Rumanians "the Hungarian church"), then they dragged out from the church our preacher, his wife and their two small children. They were naked and bleeding. First they tied our preacher to a tree in front of the church. Then they raped his wife right in front of him and the children.We had to stand there and watch, about fifty of us. Some of the Hungarians in the crowd started cursing, while others prayed aloud. The Rumanian soldiers fired into us, and yelled to be quiet and watch, because the same thing will happen to every damned Hungarian in the country. Every time one of us uttered a sound, one of the soldiers fired a shot into the crowd. Many of us were hit. Five died right there. I got a bullet in my leg, and had to sit down on the ground. But I could see everything.

 

While some of them were still torturing the preacher's wife, who kept on screaming so terrible that I could feel it in my bones, some Rumanian civilians drew knives, and kept throwing them into the naked body of the preacher who was tied to the tree, until they cut him to pieces.

 

Things like that happened everywhere, not just in our village ..."

 

Testimony No. 10.

 

On May 15, 1975, Mr gave the following testimony:

 

"I was in Transylvania in 1974 and visited the following cities: Arad, Nagyvarad, Nagybanya, Temesvar, Kolozsvar, Brasso, and Marosvasarhely.

 

It is public opinion among Hungarians in Transylvania that the fate of all Hungarians in that region is sealed. Those who do not give up their ethnic background will never be able to get a good education and a good job.

 

The official policy of the Government (Rumanian) in relation to the minorities proclaims on paper the equality of rights and possibilities for all ethnic groups. However, in the practice Hungarians are treated as second class citizens.

 

Young Hungarians can receive higher education only if they give up their language, their cultural heritage, and declare themselves Rumanians. Public employments are given only to those who spy on their fellow-Hungarians, and reject their Hungarian origin.

 

The housing policy is discriminatory, also. Better housing is exclusively for Rumanians only.

 

The Government makes visits of Hungarians from Transylvania to Hungary impossible. Hungarians who visit relatives in Transylvania are forbidden to stay in the house of their relatives.

 

The use of the Hungarian language in public brings ugly repercussions and reprisals ..."

 

Testimony No. 11.

 

On February 17, 1977 Dr. Bela Gyulai gave the following testimony:

 

"Not only documents and books found in church archives are confiscated in Rumania, but those in private hands, also. When I traveled through Transylvania last year, Rumanian officials confiscated my old Hymnal I inherited from my father, and I was able to get it back only after I proved to them that I was an American citizen, and threatened to contact the United States Embassy in Bucharest.

 

The Transylvanian Hungarian churches are forbidden to accept donations from foreigners or foreign institutions, though they are in great need of donations for the Hungarian congregations can not support their churches from the meager earnings of their members. Hungarians can have only the 1owest paid jobs today in Transylvania. I myself tried to give some financial aid to four of the Hungarian churches there, but they had to refuse it. They were so intimidated by the Rumanian authorities that they even refused to accept the money I put into the collection box.

 

The persecution of Hungarians is not restricted to only those who live there. Hungarians who come from other countries to visit relatives are also exposed to harassment. Customs examinations which last for three to five hours are not unusual if the traveler is a United States citizen of Hungarian origin.

 

I myself was the victim of such harassment last year at the Rumanian border. After looking at my American passport, the customs-official asked:

 

,Are you Hungarian?, I answered in the affirmative. He gave me an ugly look and said ,So you are one of those, ha?,

 

The examination took four hours. They practic; lly took my car apart. They took offthe hood, took out the seats, let the a r out of the spare tire, they even opened up the upholstery inside my car as well as the insulation of the ceiling. Every letter I had in my pocket or in my briefcase was opened and photographed. So was my address-book and every page of my note-book.

 

At the end he asked me ,You don,t like this?, I said ,no, . ,Then don,t ever come into my country again, he said ,stay outl,

 

While in Transylvania I was not allowed to be a guest at any one of my friends or relathes homes. I was forced to stay in primitive, dirty and expensive hotels, where the room was bugged, and my luggage searched during my absence."

 

****************

 

Laszlo Kecskemethy, S.T.M.

 

1012 Allison Ave.,

 

St. Helena, Cal.

 

 

 

A DEPOSITION

 

I, the undersigned Laszlo Kecskemethy declare under oath that on the first working day of the Fall Semester of 1941, at the Yale Divinity School, Prospect Street, New Haven, Conneticut - after the lecture on Contemporary Theology, Professor D. MacIntosh asked me: from what country did I come? I told him: from Hungary. Then he asked "how are the conditions in Hungary?" I told him: quite pitiful. Then he said that he was a member of a special committee appointed by President Wilson to supervise the fulfillment of the conditions laid down in the Versailles Agreements concerning the Middle and Eastern European borders. He said word-by-word the following:"I felt that there was something wrong with the population statistics and the border dispute represented by the Rumanian delegation but we could not do anything about it."

 

It is obvious, therefore that through the report of the special committee, President Wilson and, through him, the people of the United States of America were misled and thereby "coerced" to give consent to the establishment of a borderline between Hungary and Rumania, annexing a historically Hungarian and/or Independent Transylvania to Rumania.

 

As an American citizen, I hereby express my regrets, resentments and objection to a deplorable diplomacy that forced our great leaders: President Wilson and Dr.MacIntosh, a Professor of Christian Theology whose integrity, honesty and good will cannot be questioned to give consent to an absolutely false and dishonest decision.

 

Therefore: to protect and c1ear the good name of all those Americans who were involved in this shameful border dispute between the Rumanians and the Hungarians, I respectfu1ly request that all facts pertaining to this false diplomacy be exposed by an independent interanational tribunal and apologies to be made to the American citizens and restitution be made to all the people of Transylvania and Hungary.

 

Sworn before me on the 28th day of February, 1977.

 

in St. Helena Laszlo Keckemethy

 

County of Napa Minister, United Church of Christ

 

State of California Past President of Hungarian

 

Federation, Los Angeles Chapter

 

Past President of Captive

 

Notary Public: Nations Organization, Los Angeles

 

Kay L. Rutherford

 

California

 

The following leaflet, printed in the Rumanian language was sent out in thousands of copies from Munich, Germany during the summer of 1976 to Rumanians living in different parts of the world. This is a certified translation of the original:

 

Rumanians in the West!

 

Be ready with gun in your hands! The day is approaching when the Russian monster will have to fight for his life against the Chinese giant who will overthrow the rule of those barbarians in Moscow!

 

Rumanians in the West, be ready with gun in your hands to return home where your brothers are waiting for you! Be ready, not only to take back Besarabia from the Russians, but to save TRANSYLVANIA, also!

 

You must never forget that you have two mortal enemies: the Russians and the Hungarians, these two barbarians. Their traditions unite them against us. The Hungarians were always loyal to their Russian brothers. The so-called "Hungarian uprising" of 1956 was nothing but a farce. It was a revolt of common criminals and hoodlums, directed from the outside. The entire population of Hungary was relieved when the Russian tanks freed them from those trouble makers. This fact is proof enough that the Hungarians insist on the Russian presence in Central and Eastern Europe. Today, the Hungarians are only waiting for the opportunity to take Transylvania back from us with the support of their Russian brothers!

 

Therefore you, Rumanians in the West, must rush to Transylvania when the time is ripe, because without your guns Transylvania will be lost! Kill, without mercy! Not one Hungarian must be left alive! The only way to keep Transylvania is to eliminate, exterminate and annihilate every Hungarian who lives there!

 

Rumanians in the West; the solution to the Transylvanian problem is in your guns. But be cautious. Never take chances. Never try to encounter your enemies face to face, for the Hungarians are fierce fighters. Attack them always unexpectedly, from behind, by surprise. Do your patriotic duty calmly, keeping in mind that you have only one mission: to put a bullet into the head of your old enemy, the Hungarian!

 

This appeal expresses the unified will of all Rumanians! Copy it, and spread it among your brothers! Our success depends on you!

 

**********

 

The following declaration was sent in 1976 to numerous governmental agencies in North and South America, Europe, and Australia, as well as to a substantial number of Members of the United States Congress:

 

Declaration

 

Upon studying the situation of the 2.8 million Hungarians and other national minorities in the Socialist Republic of Rumania, who live mostly in the historical province of Transylvania, the Banat and Koros regions, the Transylvanian World Federation concludes the following:

 

-1-./ The Transylvanian World Federation condemns the continued denial of fundamental human and cultural rights to the Hungarians by the Rumanian Government. According to available source materia1 and countless testimonies received, this abuse and mistreatment constitute a permanent pattern by the successive Rumanian governments regardless of their ideology and the personalities exercising power.

 

-2-./ The Transylvanian World Federation reminds the world of the innumerable complaints of the Hungarians in the 19201939 period of the League of Nations; of the periodical documentation and denunciations of oppressive Rumanian governmental measures by House and Senate members of the United States Congress between 1965 and 1975 and of the reported memorandum of the leaders of the National Counci1 of Hungarian and German workers in Rumania enumerating their grievances to the Rumanian Government in October 1975. In view of these past events, the Transy1vanian World Federation states that the Hungarian minority is entitled to an active quest of its national right of self-determination .

 

-3-./ The Transylvanian World Federation takes notice that the historical Transylvanian and Banat regions have constituted for over one-thousand years parts of Hungary or were under Hungarian rule. Only since 1919 did they form in toto or in part a constituent unit of the Rumanian state, and more than one-third of the population of these areas is still Hungarian despite Rumanian attempts to under-report their census figure. It should also be remembered that the percentage of Rumanians in pre1919 Hungary was only 14%, nevertheless they were still awarded almost 33% of Hungary's territory.

 

The Hungarians of Transy1vania and the Banat 1ive in two compact areas and along a corridor between the two, which possess a mixed Rumanian-Hungarian population. The two compact areas are formed by a strip along the present Hungarian-Rumanian border and by the Szekely counties of Southeastern Transylvania. The connecting area contains most of the urban population in Transylvania, which is more than 70% Hungarian.

 

-4-./ The Transy1vanian World Federation requests that the mistreatment and repression of Hungarians and other national minorities in Transylvania be stopped forthwith. Many of these practices occur in contravention of the Constitution of the Socia1ist Republic of Rumania. The Transylvania World Federation calls upon the Great Powers, and the Hungarian Government to do whatever is diplomatically possible to persuade the Rumanian Government to stop such measures immedialely.

 

-5-./ The Transylvanian World Federation asserts that the Hungarian grievances in Rumania are of such magnitude as to entitle the Transylvanian Hungarians to an active pursuit of their national self-determination regardless of the provisions of the Paris Peace Treaty of 1947. This assertion is based on documentation of the constant violations of the Paris Peace Treaty and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights by the Rumanian Government, as well as violations of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

 

Therefore, the Transylvanian World Federation will continue to work incessantly for the exposure of the continued violations of the fundamental human rights by the Rumanian Government and for the promotion of the exercise of the right to national self-determination by the 2.8 million Hungarians in Rumania.

 

It calls upon the major powers, particularly upon the United States, Great Britain, France and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, to aid its campaign for the abolition of these abuses of human rights by the Rumanian Government toward its national minorities, and to abet the exercise of the national self-determination rights of the Hungarians in Rumania .

 

Prof. Albert Wass

President

Dr. Janos Nadas

Secretary

Rt. Rev. Dr. Zoltan Beky

Member, Executive Committee

Istvan Zolcsak

Member, Executive Committee

Ferenc Adorjan

Member, Executive Committee

 

 

January 29, 1976

 

CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE

DISCRIMINATION AGAINST HUNGARIANS IN ROMANIA

 

Mr. ADDABBO. Mr. Speaker, today I join my collegues in a discussion of the discrimination against the 2.5 million Hungarians in Romania. While the Romanian Constitution guarantees a number of civil rights to the citizens without discrimination as to national origin or religion, these promises are kept more in their breach and are breached more than they are kept hy the present government.

 

In the summer of 1975, 39 members of Congress, including myself wrote to President Ford asking him to raise six areas of our concern during his Bucharest visit.

 

In the meantime, it is no longer only informed Members of the U.S. Congress and the American Hungarian Federation which protest the prevailing situation, but the handpicked leaders of the Hungarian and German communities in Romania who are for the most part members of the Romanian Communist Party have done so. In an appeal to President Ceaucescu they pointed to the same areas as we did; that is:

 

First. Freedom of the use of the mother tongue, especially in schools and public agencies;

 

Second. School autonomy on the elementary, secondary, and college levels;

 

Third. Equal rights in political, cultural, and scientific life;

 

Fourth. Constitutional recognition of a Federation of Nationalities as the freely elected representation of the national minorities; and finally

 

Fifth. The return of confiscated national cultural treasures - museums, archives - where they have been Romanized. They have also asked for the establishment of a Transylvanian commission at the U.N. Human Rights Commission to insure implementation of their human rights.

 

This took a great deal of courage on their part as they could have been prosecuted for "chauvinist-nationalist agitation" under Romanian laws. However, they reflected the overwhelming sentiment of the 2.5 million Hungarians and -600-,000 Germans and even President Ceausescu was forced to deal with their complaints by attending their annual conference and speaking to them in an emotional appeal for Marxist-Leninist unity and stressing that only communist ideology and increased production could solve the problem. He did acknowledge some of the deficiencies and promised that the coming Cultural Congress in the spring of 1977 would discuss improvements particularly in regard to radio and TV programs and literature.

 

We believe that now is the time for the Congress and our administration to utilize Romania's signature to the Helsinki Declaration of August 1, 1975 and the provisions of our agreement with Romania in 1973 about the discussion of humanitarian issues of interest to either parties and remind them that their performance in the fields of human rights and family reunification will have a decisive bearing on the outcome of the congressional vote on continuing the most-favoured-nation status for Romania once the present probationary period expires in the summer of 1976.

 

February 2, 1976

 

CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE

DISCRIMINATION AGAINST HUNGARIANS IN ROMANIA

 

Mr. GOLDWATER. Mr. Speaker, people living under Communist rule still yearn for the restoration of their human and civil rights despite the propaganda put out by detente politicians that they are now satisfied with their lot and that detente is helping to improve their situation.

 

Besides the celebrated Russian dissidents who are awakening the world's conscience, we have a new case in point in the leaders of the National Councils of Hungarian and German Workers in Romania.

 

According to the very authoritative West German daily, the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung of November 11, 1975, these leaders, mostly nominal party members and handpicked candidates of President Ceaucescu and the Romanian Communist Party to lead the 2.5 million Hungarian and 600,000 German origin citizens in Romania have accused the government of discrimination against their communities and asked for remedial action by the government and also the establishment of a "Transylvanian Commission" at the U.N. Human Rights Commission.

 

In view of the Provisions of the Romanian Constitution making "chauvinist-nationalist agitation" a crime and the past practices of the police, the memorandum took great personal courage. It is notable that the demands of the memorandum were substantially identical with the areas of concern outlined in our letter to President Ford which I and 38 colleagues signed on July 22, 1975, before the President's departure to Bucharest.

 

It is an eloquent testimony to the solid popular support these leaders enjoy in their respective communities that even President Ceaucescu, plagued by economic inefficiency, floods and low productivity rates while ambitiously trying to expand industry failed to proceed with secret police means. Rather, he appeared at their annual convention, appealed to their committment as Marxist-Leninists, emphasized that only higher production rates and devotion to ideology can solve the national question and admitted shortcomings. He even promised some remedies at the coming Cultural Congress in 1977.

 

At the same time, however, he also warned against "chauvinistnationalist manifestations" which cannot be tolerated. He even referred indirectly to the activities of my collegues in the House and the Senate who had denounced last year the oppression of Romanian citizens, particularly those of non-Rumanian mother tongues and the actions of the American Hungarian Federation and the American Hungarian Reformed Church who have submitted the case to the Human Rights Commission of the U.N. President Ceaucescu called them "chauvinistnationalist manifestations on the international plane which reflect on our country in one form or another."

 

At this juncture we have the duty to press for the improvement of the human and civil rights situation of the 2.5 million Hungarians and the 00,000 Germans in Romania, for that matter demands the full implementation of the human and civil rights guarantees to all Romanian citizens under the Romanian Constitution which so often have been trampled by the present government.

 

We have two legal precedents to fall back upon: First Romania's signature of the Helsinki declaration, particu1arly articles 7 and 8 to which the National Councils also referred in their October memorandum. Second, the United States-Romanian Declaration of 1973 in which both parties agreed to consult each other on humanitarian issues of interest to either parties.

 

In the past, our State Department has been reluctant to proceed along the lines of the 1973 Declaration referring to a lack of concrete data on the subject. Now, the October memorandum provides hard evidence within Romania by Romanian-appointed public bodies of the discrimination against the national minorities. It is high time that we speak out firmly in favour of the fundamental human freedoms of these people who are our allies instead of remaining guilty of conspiracy of silence in the name of detente.

 

May 7, 1976 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE

 

SHOULD ROMANIA CONTINUE TO

RECEIVE MOST FAVOURED NATION STATUS?

 

(Mr. KOCH asked and was given permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.)

 

Mr. KOCH. Mr. Speaker, I am troubled by a letter that I have received from a constituent and a statement which appeared as an advertisement in the New York Times today, concerning the treatment of Romanians of Hungarian, German and other minority extractions by the Romanian Government. It is my understanding that as a result of our having provided on a temporary basis most-favoured-nation status to Romania that Romania had undertaken to allow its citizens to freely emigrate. And I believe there has been a substantial improvement in the area of emigration as it applied to Romanian jews seeking to leave. I would be distressed if the allegations stated in the report which I am appending are accurate, and I am writing to the Ambassador of Romania, the Honorable Corneliu Bogdan, asking for his comments on the statement.

 

If the Allegations are true then indeed they must be considered by the Congress in determining whether to continue the most favoured nation status that Romania was granted.

 

 

 

(From the New York Times, May 7, 1976)

 

WILL THE UNITED STATES ENDORSE

CULTURAL GENOCIDE IN ROMANIA?

 

Two hundred years ago the United States was founded on strong moral principles. The fashionable view today holds that those principles have largely eroded since 1776. We Hungarian-Americans do not adhere to this view.

 

The United States of America is still the champion of human rights and fundamental freedoms around the globe. It leads the fight for these ideals in the United Nations. It is the hope of oppressed Soviet Jewry and other minorities. As a last resort it gives haven to refugees of tyranny, as many of have reason to appreciate.

 

There is now an opportunity to take a further step in the spirit of this noble tradition. Rumania's dictator, Nicolae Ceausescu, is pursuing an increasingly brazen program amounting to cultural genocide against that country's Hungarian, German, and other minorities. The six major elements of this program are:

 

1. ELIMINATION OF MINORITY EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

 

Taking full advantage of the State monopoly of education, the Rumanian government eliminates, merges and reorganizes schools at will. As a result, from 1956 to 1974 the number of Hungarian elementary schools dropped from 1515 to 776. Even official statistics show that only 60-65 % of Hungarian children have the opportunity to attend Hungarian grade schools, and only 25% to attend Hungarian secondary schools. Minority origin is a definite handicap when seeking admission to an educational institution. In 1959 the two Hungarian universities were arbitrarily eliminated - and not for the lack of students.

 

2. SUPPRESSION OF MINORITY LANGUAGES

 

In addition to manipulating the educational system, the Rumanian government emp1oys other methods to suppress the use of minority languages. Rumanian is the exclusive language used at every level of government bureaucracy. This po1icy encourages chauvinism even in strictly private social situations. Members of minorities often have to put up with derision and threats for using their mother tongue.

 

3. FALSIFICATION OF HISTORICAL DATA AND POPULATION STATISTICS

 

The Rumanian Communist Party produces and disseminates its own version of history. Their semi-fictional version of Rumanian history dismisses the significance of the indigenous Hungarian culture which predates the emergence of the first Rumanian state by three centuries.

 

Through the notorious communist method of manipulating statistics, the population of minority groups is constantly falsified in government records. The Rumanian government thus manages the statistical annihilation of at least -30-% of the actual minority population of the country.

 

4.CONFISCATION OF CULTURAL ARCHIVES

 

Even taken alone, this despicable act of the Rumanian government constitutes the crime of cultural genocide. Legislation is now on the books whose sole aim is the destruction of the historical roots of minorities. For instance, Decree-Law 206(1974 (amending Decree-Law 472/1971 on the National Archives) and Act No. 63 of November 2, 1974 on the protection of the national cultural treasury. The State has used these regniations for outright appropriation of historical documents, relics, manuscripts, maps, photos, diaries, posters, engravings, imprints and other material in the possession of church archives, private organizations and individuals. Uncompensated confiscation of this kind was reported by the respectable Swiss daily Neue Zurcher Zeitung ("Bureaucratic Chicanery Against the Churches in Rumania, " February 1(2, 1975. p. 6):

 

"The material was - in many cases without receipt - loaded onto trucks and carted away. The historical order of the archives has become completely disrupted in the process - one method of "reserving" and "protecting" historical materials - rendering scientific research for the next decades impossible. The Rumanian government has openly embarked on an escalated campaign against the Reformed Church and the Hungarian nationality.

 

"The intent behind the nationalization of the ecclesiastical archives is to sever the religious communities from their historical roots. A church without a past (tradition) has no future, especially one which represents a religious and national minority. The first victim of these warlike designs against the religious and cultural minorities by the Rumanian regime was the Hungarian Reformed Church ..."

 

5.OBSTRUCTING CONTACTS WITH RELATIVES ABROAD

 

Decree-Law 225/1975 prohibits the accommodation of non-Rumanian citizens in private homes in Rumania. Only immediate relatives are exempted. Since relatives from Hungary are usually of modest means and hotel facilities - especially in rural areas - are scarce, visits often become a practical impossibility.

 

6. DISSOLUTION OF ETHNIC COMMUNITIES

 

As in all Communist States the Rumanian government has almost complete control over the labor market. Rumania however, utilizes this control to break up homogeneous ethnic groups. University and vocational school graduates of Hungarian origin are routinely assigned jobs outside their own communities. Rumanians are then encouraged to replace them through offers of attractive income and housing opportunities in those communities.

 

MULTIPLE VIOLATIONS OF INTERNATIONAL LAW

 

The above measures violate not only international standards of human rights, but the Constitution of Rumania itself. Minority populations must bear these outrages in addition to the usual intolerance and terror which affects the life of every citizen of Communist states regardless of ethnic origin.

 

All of the above abuses continue despite Rumania's ratification of the 1966 U.N. Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Article 27 of the Covenant reads as follows:

 

"ln those States in which ethnic, religious or linguistic minorities exist, persons belonging to such minorities shall not be denied the right in community with the other members of their group, to enjoy their own culture, to profess and practice their own religion, or to use their own language. "

 

The United Nations Ad Hoc Committee on Genocide in 1948 accepted the following definition as one of the ways by which the crime of cultural genocide may be committed:

 

". . .systematic destruction of historical or religious monuments or their diversion to alien uses, destruction or dispersion of documents and objects of historical, artistic, or religious value and of objects used in religious worship." (U.N. Doc E/447)

 

Regardless of the fact that the final text of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide did not incorporate the above language, Rumania's recent behavior exactly corresponds with this definition.

 

WHAT CAN THE UNITED STATES DO?

 

As a.reward for her "independence" from Moscow, Rumania was granted most-favored-nation status by Congress last year. That decision overlooked the fact that this "independence" is not founded on decency and a healthy respect for human liberty. The fact is that Rumania today is guilty of the most blatant internal oppression of all the Soviet satellites. The only condition upon which "most-favored-nation" status was granted was the requirement of free emigration. Such systematic oppression cannot offset by an easing of restrictions on emigration. Such a "solution" could well be just what the Rumanian government needs to justify a policy of exiling minorities from home, property and country. The net effect would visit even more hardship and misery on those left behind. Free emigration may solve the problem of a handful of people, but the 2.5 million Hungarians and the 400,000 Germans want to live work and prosper in a land which, in the case of Hungarians, they have inhabited for over one thousand years.

 

We urge Congress to reverse last summer's decision making "most-favored-nation" status solely dependent upon the easing of emigration restriction. Congress should revoke that status from Rumania until she completely satisfies the just and reasonable needs of her minority populations to maintain and develop her own contribution to Rumania's rich ethnic mosaic.

 

We urge the American Government to exert pressure on Rumania in any other manner to conform to enlightened standards in its treatment of minorities. The December 5, 1973 American-Rumanian joint statement specifically allows parties to raise humanitarian issues with the other.

 

We urge the American public to show the same sympathy and solidarity toward these people as it has toward so many other victims of political and cultural persecution over the last two hundred years.

 

Tomorrow, Saturday, May 8th at 2 P.M. a demonstration will be held in tront of the Rumanian Permanent Mission to the United Nations, 60 East 93rd Street, New York City. The rally is sponsored by the Committee for Human Rights in Rumania, an ad hoc organization supported by all major associations of Hungarians in America. We urge you to lend your presence to this demonstration.

 

-94-th Congress

 

-1-st Session

 

H. CON. RES. 326

 

IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

 

JUNE 26, 1975

 

Mr. He1stoski (for himself, Mr. Addabbo, Mr. Bell, Mr. Crane, Mr. Dominick V. Daniels, Mr. Patten, and Mr. Pepper) submitted the following concurrent resolution; which was referred to the Committee on Ways and Means

 

CONCURRENT RESOLUTION

 

Whereas the cu1tural, educational, and economic situation of the Hungarian minority in Romania, concentrated primarily in the historical province of Transylvania, continues to deteriorate as a result of oppressive government policies aimed at the ultimate denationalization of the Hungarian minority;

 

Whereas job, housing, and other forms of economic discrimination continue to exist as a result of the policies of the Romanian Government; and

 

Whereas both the Human Rights Declaration of the United Nations and articles 2, -17-, 22, and 102 of the Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Romania guarantee the human and civi1 rights of Romanian citizens irrespective of nationality: Now, therefore, be it

 

Resolved by the House of Representatives (the Senate concurring), That it is the sense of the Congress that the "Agreement on Trade Relations between the United States of America and the Socialist Republic of Romania" signed on April -2-, 1975, and the Presidentia1 proclamation of April 24, 1975, implementing such agreement, which would extend most-favored-nation status to Romania, should be approved contingent upon the President's certification to the Congress that he has

 

(1) discussed with the Romania Government the situation of the Hungarian and other ethnic and religious minorities in Romania,

 

(2) has received assurances from the Romanian Government that the guarantees of the Romanian constitution will be observed and enforced and that redress will be granted to members of the Hungarian and other ethnic and religious minorities in Romania who have been discriminated against because of their ethnic origin or religious affiliation, and

 

(3) has received assurances from the Romanian Government that the provisions of The Trade Act of 1974 regarding the free emigration of immediate relatives of American citizens to the United States will be complied with.

 

94-th Congress

 

2-nd Session

 

H.RES. 1522

 

IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

SEPTEMBER 2, 1976

 

Mr. Patten (for himself, Mr. Annunzio, Mr. Cleveland, Mr. Conlan, Mr. Conte, Mr. Coughlin, Mr. Crane, Mr. Fish, Mr. Forsythe, Mr. Gude, Mr. Horton, Mr. Hyde, Mr. Johnson of Pennsylvania, Mrs. Meyner, Mr. Murphy of New York, Mr. Rinaldo, Mr. Winn, and Mr. Wydler) submitted the following resolution; which was referred to the Committee on Ways and Means

 

RESOLUTION

 

Whereas section 402 of the Trade Reform Act of 1975 clearly established the dedication of the United States to the cause of fundamental human rights as the main purpose of the Trade Reform Act; and

 

Whereas such dedication has recently been reconfirmed by the signing of the Helsinki Declaration on Cooperation and Security in Europe signed also by thirty-three European states and Canada; and

 

Whereas curtailment of fundamental human rights and cultural freedoms persists in the Socialist Republic of Romania with special emphasis upon the national minorities,especially in the fields of educatlon, public use of minority languages, and religious 1iberty; and

 

Whereas such discrimination is repugnant to the observance of fundamental rights and cultural freedoms: Now, therefore, be it

 

Resolved, that it is the sense of the United States House of Representatives that the President shall submit a full report to Congress on fundamental human rights and cultural freedoms in Romania with special emphasis on the national minorities, showing concrete measures taken to ameliorate their situation by the Romanian Government, by September 15, 1976, and in the future, such a report will accompany each request for extension of authority to waive the application of section 402(a) and (b) of the Trade Act of 1974, or request of authority to extend the 1975 United States-Romanian Trade agreement itself; be it further

 

Resolved, That should no ameliorative measures occur, it is the sense of the United States House of Representatives that the 1975 United States-Romanian Trade Agreement and the most-favored-nation treatment of the Socialist Republic of Romania shall not be extended.

 

94-th Congress

 

2-nd Session

 

H. RES. 1547

 

IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

SEPTEMBER 15, 1976

 

Mr. McDonald of Georgia submitted the following resolution;

 

which was referred to the Committee on Ways and Means

 

RESOLUTION

 

Resolved, That the House of Representatives does not approve the extension of the authority contained in section 402(c) of the Trade Act of 1974 recommended by the President to the Congress on June 2, 1974, with respect to the Socialist Republic of Romania.

 

-94-th Congress Calendar No. 1 194 2nd Session

 

S. RES. 555

 

IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES

 

SEPTEMBER 20, 1976

 

Mr. Helms submitted the following resolution; which was ordered to be

 

placed on the calendar by unanimous consent

 

RESOLUTION

 

Relating to the Socialist Republic of Romania.

 

Resolved, That the Senate of the United States of America does not approve the extension of the authority contained in section 402(c) of the Trade Act of 1974 recommended by the President to the Congress on June 2, 1976, with respect to the Socialist Republic of Romania.

 

 

AN APPEAL TO THE HONORABLE JIMMY CARTER

TO DEMONSTRATE A CONCERN OVER

HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS AGAINST THE 2.5 MILLION

HUNGARIANS IN RUMANIA

 

Your eloquent statements on the importance of morality in foreign policy have instilled a new hope in the approximately one million Hungarian-Americans throughout the United States. We wholeheartedly agree with your position that this nation "can not look away when a government tortures people, or jails them for their believes or denies minorities fair treatment." (Speech to National Convention of B'nai B'rith, September 8, 1976). All too often over the past years our leaders have, as you said, "rationalized that there is little room for morality in foreign affairs" and have placed a higher value on commercial and political considerations. In contrast to this trend, you have not only expressed the need for our country to restore a healthy respect for fundamental human rights, but you have pointed out the means, United States trade policy, for achieving this end. We applaud the position which you summed up in the following manner: "lf other nations want our triendship and support, they must understand that we want to see basic human rights respected, and this includes the rights of Hungarians wherever they may be. " (Cablegram to Hungarian organizations, October 23, 1976).

 

Our purpose now is to ca1l your attention to a concrete and specific opportunity for implementing the ideals you have espoused. Rumania is one country which, by any definition of the phrase, "denies minorities fair treatment." The dictator of that country, Nicolai Ceausescu, is currently waging a systematic and increasingly aggressive campaign of forceful assimilation against the 2.5 million native Hungarian inhabitants of Rumania. The principal elements of this brazen assault consist of falsification of population statistics; gross discrimination in the field of education; dissolution of compact minority communities and dispersion of ethnic professionals; curtailment of cultural opportunities for minorities; refusal to permit bilingualism; falsification of history; confiscation of ethnic church archives; obstruction of contracts with relatives abroad; and persecution of minority religious institutions. Each of these abusive measures is fully documented in the material attached to this memorandum.

 

As President of the United States, you will have several means at your disposal to exert pressure on the Rumanian Government to reverse this policy of oppression. Your Administration will, as a matter of course, be making contacts with representatives of the Rumanian Government. We appeal to you, and those representing you, to use the opportunity offered by such meetings to express a serious concern for the fate of the Hungarian minority in Rumania. The Ford Administration, through it's State Department, has failed to treat this question with any degree of objectivity. We urge you to direct a thorough and unbiased investigation and it institute a dialogue with the appropriate representatives of the Rumanian Government.

 

Finally, we call upon you to inform the Rumanian Government that you will not recommend extension of Most Favored Nation status until that Government has imp1emented concrete measures to ameliorate the situation of the Hungarian minority.

 

We are certain that your firm stand on basic moral principles will restore the prestige of this nation, and we pray that God give you the strength, the wisdom and the clear sight needed to fulfill this great mission .

 

Hungarian-Americans in defense of human rights

 

" ... I AM COMMITTED TO DOING WHATEVER I CAN TO ASSURE BASIC HUMAN RIGHTS ARE HONORED HERE AT HOME AND AROUND THE WORLD. I HAVE READ YOUR APPEAL AND HAVE FORWARDED IT TO CYRUS VANCE SO THAT HE, TOO, MIGHT KNOW OF YOUR CONCERN AS WE PREPARE FOR OUR ADMINISTRATION ..."

 

Jimmy Carter

 

President of the United States of America

 

" ... I PLAN TO MAKE IT UNDERSTOOD THAT IF ANY NATION, WHATEVER ITS POLITICAL SYSTEM, DEPRIVES IT PEOPLE OF BASIC HUMAN RIGHTS, THAT FACT WILL HELP SHAPE OUR PEOPLE's ATTITUDE TOWARD THAT NATION's GOVERNMENT. IF OTHER NATIONS WANT OUR FRIENDSHIP AND SUPPORT, THEY MUST UNDERSTAND THAT WE WANT TO SEE BASIC HUMAN RIGHTS RESPECTED, AND THIS INCL UDES THE RIGHTS OF HUNGARIANS WHEREVER THEY MAYBE ... "

 

Jimmy Carter

 

President of the United States of America


Szerkesztés dátuma: hétfő, 2010. december 27. Szerkesztette: Kabai Zoltán
Nézettség: 3,396 Kategória: Irodalom » Documented facts and figures on Transylvania
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